<p>It should be noted that calibration of water testing equipment is as important as the tuning of a musical instrument. Calibration is important, we all get that. Effective calibration is vital for getting accurate data. What I mean by effective calibration is this: an instrument should be calibrated with standards that bracket the expected results as closely as possible. For instance, suppose the water I am analyzing has a pH of 5.59. I will get better results if I calibrate a pH sensor using pH 4 and pH 7 standards than if I calibrate the same sensor using pH 2 and pH 10 standards. I would get even better results if I chose pH 5 and pH 6 standards. Of course, in order to accurately bracket expected results, I have to know something about the water beforehand. Initially selecting a broad range of calibration standards can be useful for determining the &ldquo;ballpark&rdquo; values of the water. I could then re-calibrate the instrument with a pair of standards that would be a tighter fit. But not all water monitoring equipment nor analytes have linear behavior, and no instrument is linear over all ranges. Usually there are slight variations from linearity &ndash; and these are the problem areas that make effective calibrations so important. If an instrument doesn&rsquo;t exhibit a linear behavior over a range, the selection of two calibration standards closely bracketing the expected value will usually negate the inaccuracies created by non-linearity. For more information on water testing, waste water monitoring and control, visit www.xylemanalytics.co.uk!</p>

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